The Board is responsible for (1) providing advice and oversight of the strategic and operational direction of the Company and (2) overseeing the Company’s executive management, each to ensure the Company operates in ways that support the long-term interest of our stockholders and the other stakeholders we serve. To do this effectively, the Board has adopted clear and specific governance guidelines (“Corporate Governance Guidelines”) that, along with our Bylaws, Board committee charters, and our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics (“Code of Business Conduct”), provide the framework for the governance of the Company.
The following is a list of governance provisions that demonstrate eBay’s commitment to transparency and accountability:
|✔||Strong Board independence (11 of 13 directors are independent)||✔||Separate Chairman and CEO roles|
|✔||Declassified Board with all members standing for election annually||✔||Independent Chairman with robust responsibilities|
|✔||Majority vote standard for uncontested director elections||✔||Simple majority vote standard for bylaw/charter amendments and transactions|
|✔||Stockholder right to call a special meeting||✔||Clawback policy|
|✔||Stockholder proxy access||✔||Stock ownership requirements for our executive officers and directors|
|✔||Strong stockholder engagement practices||✔||Anti-hedging and anti-pledging policies|
Our Corporate Governance Guidelines, the charters of our principal Board committees, and our Code of Business Conduct can be found on our investor relations website at https://investors.ebayinc.com/corporate-governance.cfm. Any changes in these governance documents will be reflected in the same location on our website. Information contained on our investor relations website is not part of this Proxy Statement.
The rules of The NASDAQ Stock Market require listed companies to have a board of directors with at least a majority of independent directors. These rules have both objective tests and a subjective test for determining who is an “independent director.”
|Objective test||The objective tests state, for example, that a director is not considered independent if he or she is an employee of the Company, or is a partner in, or a controlling stockholder or executive officer of, an entity to which the Company made, or from which the Company received, payments in the current or any of the past three fiscal years that exceed 5% of the recipient’s consolidated gross revenue for that year.|
|Subjective test||The subjective test requires our Board to affirmatively determine that a director does not have a relationship that would interfere with the director’s exercise of independent judgment in carrying out his or her responsibilities.|
On a quarterly basis, each member of our Board is required to complete a questionnaire designed to provide information to assist the Board in determining whether the director is independent under the listing standards of The NASDAQ Stock Market and our Corporate Governance Guidelines, and whether members of our Audit Committee and Compensation Committee satisfy additional Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and NASDAQ independence requirements.
Our Board has adopted guidelines setting forth certain categories of transactions, relationships, and arrangements that it has deemed immaterial for purposes of making its determination regarding a director’s independence, and does not consider any such transactions, relationships, and arrangements in making its subjective determination.
11 of our 13 Directors are Independent
Our Board has determined that each of the following directors is independent under the listing standards of The NASDAQ Stock Market and under eBay’s Corporate Governance Guidelines:
- Fred Anderson Jr.
- Adriane M. Brown
- Diana Farrell
- Anthony J. Bates
- Logan D. Green
- Bonnie S. Hammer
- Kathleen C. Mitic
- Pierre M. Omidyar
- Paul S. Pressler
- Thomas J. Tierney
- Perry M. Traquina
The Board limits membership on the Audit Committee, the Compensation Committee, and the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee to independent directors.
Our Corporate Governance Guidelines require any director who has previously been determined to be independent to inform the Chairman of the Board and our Corporate Secretary of any change in his or her principal occupation or status as a member of the board of any other public company, including retirement, or any change in circumstance that may cause his or her status as an independent director to change.
Our directors have an average tenure of 6 years and a median tenure of 3 years. This experience balances the institutional knowledge of our longer-tenured directors with the fresh perspectives brought by our newer directors. Of our current directors, 7 independent directors have joined since 2015, 3 of which have been female directors.
Board of Directors and Committees
In accordance with our Bylaws, our Board elects our Chairman of the Board and appoints our CEO. Our Corporate Governance Guidelines require that the roles of Chairman of the Board and CEO be held by separate individuals and require the appointment of a lead independent director if the Chairman of the Board is not an independent director. Mr. Tierney has served as our Chairman of the Board since July 2015. The Board believes that the separation of the offices of the Chairman of the Board and CEO is appropriate as it aids in the Board’s oversight of management and it allows our CEO to focus primarily on his management responsibilities.
All directors are elected annually. We do not have a classified board.
The Board has three principal committees: the Audit Committee, the Compensation Committee, and the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee.
The purpose of the Board committees is to help the Board effectively and efficiently fulfill its responsibilities, but they do not displace the oversight of the Board as a whole. Each committee meets regularly and has a written charter that has been approved by the Board. In addition, a member of each committee periodically reports on any significant matters discussed by the committee.
* Edward W. Barnholt has decided to retire and not stand for re-election to the Board at the 2018 Annual Meeting. Paul S. Pressler has been appointed as Chair of the Compensation Committee effective as of the date of the 2018 Annual Meeting.
During 2017, our Board held four meetings, and each Board member attended at least 75% of the aggregate of all of the Board meetings and committee meetings held for the committees for the period which such director served.
Each member of the Audit Committee is independent in accordance with the audit committee independence requirements of the listing rules of The NASDAQ Stock Market and the applicable rules and regulations of the SEC. Our Board has determined that Mr. Anderson is an “audit committee financial expert” as defined by the SEC. Ms. Brown joined the Audit Committee in September 2017. Mr. Pressler resigned from the Audit Committee in September 2017.
|Audit Committee||Ten Meetings in 2017|
|All independent||Key Responsibilities|
|Fred D. Anderson Jr. (Chair) |
Adriane M. Brown
Perry M. Traquina
The Audit Committee also has primary responsibility for the oversight of risks facing our business. See “Corporate Governance – Our Corporate Governance Practices – Risk Oversight – Audit Committee’s Role in Risk Oversight.”
You can view our Audit Committee Charter on the corporate governance section of our investor relations website at https://investors.ebayinc.com/corporate-governance.cfm.
The members of our Compensation Committee are all independent in accordance with the rules and regulations of The NASDAQ Stock Market, the Exchange Act and Section 162(m) of the Internal Revenue Code. Mr. Pressler joined the Compensation Committee in September 2017.
|Compensation Committee||Eight Meetings in 2017|
|All independent||Key Responsibilities|
|Edward W. Barnholt (Chair)* |
Anthony J. Bates
Bonnie S. Hammer
Kathleen C. Mitic
Paul S. Pressler
Thomas J. Tierney
* Edward W. Barnholt has decided to retire and not stand for re-election to the Board at the 2018 Annual Meeting. Paul S. Pressler has been appointed as Chair of the Compensation Committee effective as of the date of the 2018 Annual Meeting.
The Compensation Committee Charter permits the Compensation Committee to, in its discretion, delegate all or a portion of its duties and responsibilities to a subcommittee of the Compensation Committee.
Additional disclosure regarding the role of the Compensation Committee in compensation matters, including the role of consultants in compensation decisions, can be found under “Compensation Discussion and Analysis — Compensation Decisions for 2017” and “Compensation Discussion and Analysis — Further Considerations for Setting Executive Compensation — Role of Consultants in Compensation Decisions” below.
You can view our Compensation Committee Charter on the corporate governance section of our investor relations website at https://investors.ebayinc.com/corporate-governance.cfm.
Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation. All members of the Compensation Committee during 2017 were independent directors, and no member was an employee or former employee of eBay. No Compensation Committee member had any relationship requiring disclosure under Item 404 of Regulation S-K promulgated by the SEC. During 2017, none of our executive officers served on the Compensation Committee (or its equivalent) or board of directors of another entity whose executive officer served on our Compensation Committee or Board.
Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee
All members of our Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee are independent under the listing standards of The NASDAQ Stock Market. Mr. Green joined the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee in March 2017.
|Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee||Four Meetings in 2017|
|All Independent||Key Responsibilities|
|Kathleen C. Mitic (Chair) |
Logan D. Green
Paul S. Pressler
Thomas J. Tierney
Perry M. Traquina
Director Nominations. The Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee considers nominee recommendations from a variety of sources, including nominees recommended by stockholders. The Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee has from time to time retained an executive search firm to help facilitate the screening and interview process of director nominees. The Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee expects that qualified candidates will have high-level managerial experience in a relatively complex organization or be accustomed to dealing with complex problems, and will be able to represent the interests of the stockholders as a whole rather than special interest groups or constituencies.
Among other factors, the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee considers each candidate relative to the following:
|CORE QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCES||DIVERSITY OF SKILLS AND EXPERIENCES|
|✔||Integrity and judgment||+||Technology industry experience|
|✔||Demonstrated management ability||+||Financial experience as CFO or in a similar capacity|
|✔||Extensive experience in the public, private or not-for-profit sectors||+||Public company / corporate governance|
|✔||Leadership & expertise in their respective fields||+||Global experience|
|✔||Financial literacy or expertise||+||Audit, tax, accounting & preparation of financial statements|
|✔||Experience of particular relevance to the Company||+||Transactional experience|
|✔||Ability to work synergistically with others to solve complex problems||+||Mergers and Acquisitions experience|
|✔||Availability and willingness to devote sufficient time to Board activities||+||Established & growth markets|
|✔||Involvement in educational, charitable & community organizations||+||Management and strategy / leadership consulting experience|
|✔||Strategic thinking||+||Media experience|
|✔||Reputational focus||+||Environmental, social & governance|
|+||Talent and culture development|
|+||Product and marketing experience|
|+||Investment and finance experience|
|+||Government and public policy experience|
Our Corporate Governance Guidelines provide that the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee should consider diversity (including gender and race), age, international background, and expertise in evaluating potential Board members.
Diversity is an important factor in our consideration of potential directors
|When searching for new directors, the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee actively seeks out qualified women and individuals from minority groups to include in the pool from which Board nominees are chosen.
Diversity is also assessed as part of the annual Board evaluation.
The Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee also considers the interplay of a candidate’s background and expertise with that of other Board members, and the extent to which a candidate may be a desirable addition to any committee of the Board. The Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee also values diversity as a factor in selecting nominees to serve on the Board.
Finally, the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee also takes into account the set of guiding principles relating to Board membership described in “Our Corporate Governance Practices — Succession Planning” below.
You can view our Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee Charter on the corporate governance section of our investor relations website at https://investors.ebayinc.com/corporate-governance.cfm.
Our Board is committed to good corporate governance and believes in maintaining policies and practices that serve the interests of all stockholders, including governance provisions that protect and empower stockholders, including:
- Special Meeting – Stockholders representing 25% or more of eBay common stock can call a special stockholders
- Annual Election of Board of Directors – All directors are elected annually by the stockholders, and stockholders can remove directors with or without
- Majority Voting for Election of Board of Directors – We have adopted a majority voting standard for the election of directors in uncontested
- Proxy Access for Director Nominations – We have adopted a proxy access bylaw provision that allows an eligible stockholder or group of stockholders to nominate candidates for election to the Board that are included in our proxy statement and
- Majority Voting for Charter and Bylaw Amendments – Our charter and bylaw provisions do not have supermajority voting Stockholders can approve binding charter and bylaw amendments with a majority vote.
- No Stockholder Rights Plan – We do not have a stockholder rights plan (also known as a “poison pill”).
- Independent Board Leadership – We have separated the roles of Chairman of the Board and The Chairman of the Board is an independent director – as are all of the chairs of the committees of the Board.
- Stockholder Engagement – Stockholders can communicate directly with the Board and/or individual directors. (See “Contacting the Board or Individual Directors”) In addition, management and members of the Board regularly engage with stockholders to solicit their views on important issues such as corporate governance and executive compensation.
Stockholder Engagement on Corporate Governance and Our Executive Compensation Program
We have a practice of regularly engaging with stockholders to seek their feedback on our corporate governance practices and our executive compensation program. After we file our proxy statement, we engage with our largest stockholders about important topics to be addressed at our annual meeting. In the fall, we conduct an additional cycle of stockholder engagement where we focus on our corporate governance practices and executive compensation program, as well as anything else resulting from matters voted on at our annual meeting. Following each round of stockholder engagement, we provide an overview of the discussions and feedback to the applicable Board committees, which is also discussed with the Board.
Gender Pay Equity and Global Diversity & Inclusion. At our 2016 annual meeting, stockholders considered a stockholder proposal to publish a report on gender pay equity. Prior to receiving this stockholder proposal, we had begun the process of conducting an extensive global study of gender pay equity that considered the main components of compensation, including salary, bonus and stock. While the proposal did not pass, it garnered significant support. In October 2016, we publicly disclosed key findings of our pay equity study, including that women earn the same as men in the U.S. in terms of salary. In March 2017, we published our first global Diversity and Inclusion (“D&I”) Report, which included both quantitative information about our global gender diversity and U.S. racial and ethnic diversity along with details about our strategic approach, programs and initiatives. In early April 2018, we published our second global D&I Report, as well as the findings from our second global study of gender pay equity. We found that, in the U.S., women earn 100% of what men earn in terms of total compensation and, globally, women earn 100.1% of what men earn in terms of total compensation.
Our Corporate Governance Practices
We believe that strong corporate governance practices that provide meaningful rights to our stockholders and ensure Board accountability are key to our relationship with our stockholders. To help our stockholders understand our commitment to this relationship and our governance practices, the Board has adopted a set of Corporate Governance Guidelines to set a framework within which the Board will conduct its business. Our Corporate Governance Guidelines are summarized below along with certain other of our governance practices.
Meetings of the Board of Directors and Committees
Executive Sessions among Independent Directors. At least several times a year, the independent directors meet in executive session. The Chairman leads these discussions.
Outside Advisors. The Board and each of its committees may retain outside advisors of its choosing at the Company’s expense. Neither the Board nor any committee is required to obtain management’s consent to retain outside advisors.
Board Member Attendance at Annual Meeting
Absent exigent circumstances, all Board members are expected to attend eBay’s annual meeting of stockholders in person or by telephone or video call. All of our directors serving on our Board at the time of our last annual meeting of stockholders, which was held in May 2017, attended that meeting.
Board and Committee Effectiveness; Board Annual Self-Assessment; Board Education
It is important that the Board and its committees are performing effectively and in the best interests of the Company and its stockholders. The Board and each committee perform an annual self-assessment to evaluate its effectiveness in fulfilling its obligations. As part of this annual self-assessment, directors are able to provide feedback on the performance of other directors. The Chair of the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee leads the Board in its review of the results of the annual self-assessment and takes further action as needed. In addition, the Company provides membership in the National Association of Corporate Directors to all Board members, as well as the opportunity to attend director education programs at other institutions, to assist them in remaining current with exemplary board and committee practices and developments in corporate governance.
The Board also has developed a set of guiding principles relating to Board membership. The Board believes that in light of the rapidly changing environment in which the Company’s businesses operate, the Board must add members with highly relevant professional experience. In addition, the Board believes that a certain amount of director turnover is to be expected and desirable, and while it does not have term limits, the Board believes that up to nine to 12 years will generally be the expected time commitment from any individual director.
The Board recognizes the importance of effective executive leadership to eBay’s success. We conduct a review process at least annually that includes succession plans for our senior leadership positions. These succession plans are reviewed and approved by our Board. In conducting its review, the Board considers, among other factors, organizational and operational needs, competitive challenges, leadership/ management potential and development, and emergency situations.
Risk is inherent with every business, and how well a business manages risk can ultimately determine its success. We face a number of risks, including economic, financial, legal and regulatory, operational, and other risks, such as the impact of competition. Management is responsible for the day-to-day management of the risks that we face, while the Board, as a whole and through its committees, has responsibility for the oversight of risk management. In its risk oversight role, the Board is responsible for satisfying itself that the risk management framework and supporting processes as implemented by management are adequate and functioning as designed.
Audit Committee’s Role in Risk Oversight. While the Board is ultimately responsible for risk oversight at eBay, the Board has delegated to the Audit Committee the primary responsibility for the oversight of risks facing our businesses. The Audit Committee’s charter provides that it will review and discuss with management our major risk exposures, including financial, operational, privacy, security, cybersecurity, competition, legal, and regulatory risks, and the steps we have taken to detect, monitor, and actively manage such exposures, as well as management’s risk assessment and risk management policies. The Audit Committee reviews with our General Counsel any significant legal, compliance, and regulatory matters that could have a material impact on our financial statements or our business, including material notices to or inquiries received from governmental agencies. We also have embedded an enterprise risk management (“ERM”) program across our core businesses, aligned with our Company-wide initiative involving the Audit Committee, management, and other personnel. The ERM framework is designed to identify, assess, prioritize, and manage our major risk exposures which could affect our ability to execute on our corporate strategy and fulfill our business objectives. The ERM program is designed to enable the Audit Committee to establish a mutual understanding with management of the effectiveness of the Company’s risk management practices and capabilities, to review the Company’s risk exposure and risk tolerance, and to elevate certain key risks for oversight at the Board level.
Management’s Role in Risk Oversight. Our Vice President, Internal Audit is responsible for our internal audit function and our risk governance framework, which includes risk assessment, monitoring, and reporting. The Vice President, Internal Audit reports directly to the Audit Committee, and the Audit Committee reviews and evaluates the compensation and performance of the Vice President, Internal Audit and provides the Vice President, Internal Audit with direct access to the Audit Committee. The Vice President, Internal Audit facilitates the Audit Committee’s review and approval of the internal audit plan and provides regular reporting on audit activities. In addition, through consultation with management, the Vice President, Internal Audit periodically assesses the major risks facing eBay and coordinates with the executives responsible for such risks through the risk governance process. The Vice President, Internal Audit periodically reviews with the Audit Committee the major risks facing eBay and the steps management has taken to detect, monitor, and manage those risks within the agreed risk tolerance. The executive responsible for managing a particular risk may also report to the Audit Committee on how the risk is being managed and progress towards agreed mitigation goals.
In addition to the general oversight responsibility that has been delegated to the Audit Committee, other committees review the risks within their areas of responsibility and expertise. For example, the Compensation Committee reviews the risks associated with our compensation policies and practices and our succession planning process.
Risk Assessment of Compensation Policies and Practices. We have assessed the compensation policies and practices for our employees and concluded that they do not create risks that are reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect on the Company. This analysis was presented to the Audit Committee and the Compensation Committee, both of which agreed with this conclusion.
Corporate Hotline. We have established a corporate hotline that is operated by a third party and allows any employee to confidentially and anonymously (where legally permissible) lodge a complaint about any accounting, internal control, auditing, or other matters of concern.
Conflicts of Interest
We expect our directors, executive officers, and other employees to conduct themselves with the highest degree of integrity, ethics, and honesty. Our credibility and reputation depend upon the good judgment, ethical standards, and personal integrity of each director, executive officer, and employee. Our Code of Business Conduct requires that directors, executive officers, and other employees disclose actual or potential conflicts of interest and recuse themselves from related decisions. In order to better protect us and our stockholders, we regularly review our Code of Business Conduct and related policies to ensure that they provide clear guidance to our directors, executive officers, and employees.
The Company also has practices that address potential conflicts in circumstances where a non-employee director is a control person of an investment fund that desires to make an investment in or acquire a company that may compete with one of the Company’s businesses. Under those circumstances, the director is required to notify the Company’s CEO and General Counsel of the proposed transaction, and the Company’s senior management then assesses the nature and degree to which the investee company is competitive with the Company’s businesses, as well as the potential overlaps between the Company and the investee company. If the Company’s senior management determines that the competitive situation and potential overlaps between eBay and the investee company are acceptable, approval of the transaction by the Company would be conditioned upon the director agreeing to certain limitations (including refraining from joining the board of directors of the investee company or conveying any confidential or proprietary material between the Company and the investee company, abstaining from being the primary decision- maker for the investment fund with respect to the investee company, and recusing himself/herself from portions of Company Board meetings that contain competitive information reasonably pertinent to the investee company). All transactions by investment funds in which a non-employee director is a control person also remain subject in all respects to the Board’s written policy for the review of related person transactions, discussed under the section entitled “Certain Transactions with Directors and Officers” below.
Stockholders wishing to submit recommendations or director nominations pursuant to the advance notice procedures set forth in our Bylaws for our 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders should submit their proposals to the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee in care of our Corporate Secretary. Such submissions should be in accordance with the time limitations, procedures, and requirements described under the heading “May I propose actions for consideration at next year’s Annual Meeting or nominate individuals to serve as directors?” in the section entitled “Questions and Answers about the Proxy Materials and our 2019 Annual Meeting” below.
Proxy Access for Director Nominations. In March 2016, our Board adopted a “Proxy Access for Director Nominations” bylaw provision, which permits an eligible stockholder or group of up to 20 stockholders to nominate candidates for election to our Board. Proxy access candidates will be included in our proxy statement and ballot. The proxy access bylaw provision provides that holders of at least 3% of eBay common stock, which can comprise up to 20 stockholders, holding such stock continuously for at least three years, can nominate two individuals or 20% of the Board, whichever is greater, for election at an annual stockholders meeting. Our Bylaws provide details regarding the time frames and procedures that must be followed and other requirements that must be met to nominate directors through this process.
Additional Governance Provisions
Stock Ownership Guidelines. Our Board has adopted stock ownership guidelines to better align the interests of our directors and executive officers with the interests of our stockholders and further promote our commitment to sound corporate governance. Under these guidelines, our executive officers are required to achieve ownership of eBay common stock valued at three times their annual base salary (seven times in the case of our CEO). For the executive officers, these guidelines are initially calculated using the executive officer’s base salary as of the date the person is first appointed as an executive officer. Each person who was serving as an executive officer as of June 30, 2016, had his or her guidelines recalculated as of July 1, 2016. These guidelines are then recalculated each January 1st immediately following the third anniversary of the most recent calculation. In addition, these guidelines will also be recalculated as of the date on which an executive officer’s pay grade changes. Our directors (except for our CEO) are required to achieve ownership of eBay common stock valued at three times the amount of the annual retainer payable to directors as of the later of (i) July 1, 2016 or (ii) the year the director is first elected to the Board. Thereafter, these guidelines will be recalculated each June 1 (based on the value of each director’s annual retainer payable for that year).
Each of our executive officers (including our CEO) are required to retain 50% of any shares received (net of any shares sold or withheld to pay any applicable exercise price or satisfy tax withholding obligations) as the result of the exercise, vesting or payment of any eBay equity awards granted to the executive officer until the stock ownership guidelines are met. Each of our directors (except for our CEO) are required to retain 25% of the shares received (net of any shares sold or withheld to pay any applicable exercise price or satisfy tax withholding obligations) as the result of the exercise, vesting or payment of any eBay equity awards granted to the director until the stock ownership guidelines are met. Our stock ownership guidelines can be found on our investor relations website at https://investors.ebayinc.com/corporate-governance.cfm.
The ownership levels of our executive officers and directors as of April 4, 2018 are set forth in the section entitled “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management” below.
Hedging and Pledging Policy. The Company’s insider trading policy prohibits directors, executive officers, and other employees from entering into any hedging or monetization transactions relating to our securities or otherwise trading in any instrument relating to the future price of our securities, such as a put or call option, futures contract, short sale, collar, or other derivative security. The policy also prohibits directors and executive officers from pledging eBay common stock as collateral for any loans.
Clawbacks. In 2012, we implemented changes to the eBay Incentive Plan and the Company’s equity incentive plans to provide that awards made under those plans are subject to a clawback provision. In January 2014, the terms of the clawback were adopted by the Compensation Committee subject to amendment to comply with the SEC rules to be issued in accordance with the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, or the Dodd-Frank Act.
Contacting the Board or Individual Directors
Stockholders may contact the Board or individual directors at the following address:
c/o Corporate Secretary, eBay Inc., 2025 Hamilton Avenue, San Jose, California 95125.
The Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee has delegated responsibility for initial review of stockholder communications to our Corporate Secretary. This process assists the Board in reviewing and responding to stockholder communications in an appropriate manner. The Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee has instructed our Corporate Secretary to review correspondence directed to the Board and its principal committees. It is at her discretion to determine whether to forward items solely related to complaints by users with respect to ordinary course of business, customer service and satisfaction issues, or matters she deems to be of a commercial or frivolous nature or otherwise inappropriate for the Board’s or its committees’ consideration.
We have taken a number of steps to ensure continued independence of our outside auditors. Our independent auditors report directly to the Audit Committee, and we limit the use of our auditors for non-audit services. The fees for services provided by our auditors in 2016 and 2017 and our policy on pre-approval of non-audit services are described under “Proposal 3 — Ratification of Appointment of Independent Auditors” below.